The problem:
Cradle-to-grave waste treatment

Waste management systems have not changed in principal. Today, nearly all of the world’s waste ends up emitted to the environment in some way.

Today’s waste disposal methods are unsustainable.



of the world’s waste ends up in the environment.

Despite improvements to material recovery through recycling and composting, only a small fraction of waste actually closes the sustainability loop.

Sources of waste

The world produces 14.1 Billion tonnes of waste per year, with industrial waste making up over 54%.

Production by Category

Industrial Waste







  • Industrial
  • MSW
  • C&D
  • Tires
  • Hazardous
  • E-Waste
  • Sewage Sludge
Industrial Waste

7.6 Billion tonnes/year —

6.4 B tonnes (non-hazardous from mining, electricity and water industry) / 1.2 B tonnes (non-hazardous from manufacturing industry).

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

2 Billion tonnes/year —

Municipal or “common“ waste produced by the general public. The composition of the waste greatly varies from every community.

Construction & Demolition Debris

2 Billion tonnes/year —

Materials from roadwork, demolition, and construction including building materials of wood, asphalt, concrete, gypsum, and more.

Waste Tires

1.5 Billion tonnes/year —

One of the world’s most common and most difficult wastes to dispose of.

Hazardous Waste

890 Million tonnes/year —

Waste that is toxic, infectious, radioactive, or flammable; capable of causing substantial threat to public health or to the environment.

Electronic Waste (e-Waste)

50 Million tonnes/year —

Disposed electronic equipment and devices containing toxic chemicals linked to life threatening health effects.

Sewage Sludge

25 Million tonnes/year —

Sludge formations from post-treatment of used water discharged from homes, businesses, industry, cities and agriculture.

Waste treatment
hasn’t changed since 1650 B.C.

01234567890012345678900123456789001234567890 b.c.

Landfilling —

The earliest evidence of landfills was discovered outside the Cretan capital of Knossos where waste was deposited before being covered with soil.


Incineration —

The 19th and 20th centuries introduced open-pit burning and incineration to decrease waste volume by converting it to fly ash and gaseous emissions.


Recycling —

Trading of waste peaked in 2018 when buyers issued a ban on any recyclables exhibiting contamination greater than 5%. As a result, over 90% of recyclables were landfilled.


Landfilling continues —

Landfilling operations are growing larger and more expensive to permit, build, and operate. Many of the world’s 60,000 landfills are reaching capacity.

Key issues —

• Landfills reaching capacity.
• Incinerators producing toxic emissions.
• Waste-to-energy producing uncompetitive energy.
• Natural resources depleting at an alarming rate.

It’s time to improve…


The Future —

Holistic resource recovery systems designed to recover near 100% of molecules from landfill-bound waste materials.

Refacture facilities close the sustainability loop by combining zero-waste technologies with large-scale manufacturing processes under one roof.

It is much more than waste management. Refacture systems apply machine learning/AI, data analytics, and advanced manufacturing processes to innovate an outdated industry.